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The following links help navigate the LIPASTO unit emission general description and mode-specific methodology descriptions.
On these LIPASTO pages working machines and off-road vehicles are understood as vehicles and equipment with combustion engines that are primarily used and operated off-road. Some of them are drivable and may be used also on roads occasionally or even regularly, while some others may be movable or handheld equipment. Electric working machines or off-road vehicles are not covered.
TYKO model, a sub-part of the LIPASTO calculation system, is used to determine unit emissions for working machines and off-road vehicles.
Emissions are tabled in two ways, firstly relative to power use and secondly relative to fuel consumption. The suitable format relates to information available. If information on nominal power (kW), load factor and use hours (h) exists, the first table format applies. If information on fuel consumption only exists, then the second table format should be used. LIPASTO unit emission database is representative of the average vehicles and equipment in Finland, and it should be noted that newer vehicles typically perform better and older worse than the average emissions in the tables. This is especially the case for regulated emission compounds (CO, HC, NOx and PM). See for example. DieselNet.
Values used for computing unit emission factors are available in the background data table.