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Methodology: LIPASTO unit emissions database

The following links help navigate the LIPASTO unit emission general description and mode-specific methodology descriptions.

 |  General |  Road transport  |  Rail transport |  Waterborne transport |  Air transport |  Working machines, etc. | 

Working machines and off-road vehicles


On these LIPASTO pages working machines and off-road vehicles are understood as vehicles and equipment with combustion engines that are primarily used and operated off-road. Some of them are drivable and may be used also on roads occasionally or even regularly, while some others may be movable or handheld equipment. Electric working machines or off-road vehicles are not covered.

TYKO model, a sub-part of the LIPASTO calculation system, is used to determine unit emissions for working machines and off-road vehicles.

Emissions are tabled in two ways, firstly relative to power use and secondly relative to fuel consumption. The suitable format relates to information available. If information on nominal power (kW), load factor and use hours (h) exists, the first table format applies. If information on fuel consumption only exists, then the second table format should be used. LIPASTO unit emission database is representative of the average vehicles and equipment in Finland, and it should be noted that newer vehicles typically perform better and older worse than the average emissions in the tables. This is especially the case for regulated emission compounds (CO, HC, NOx and PM). See for example. DieselNet.


  • Average emissions mean annual weighted average, computed using TYKO model (annual total emissions are divided by power usage or fuel consumption).
  • Nominal power means the maximum continuous rated power announced by seller or manufacturer.
  • Average nominal power means the weighted average of the vehicles and equipment in TYKO model.
  • Load factor means the share of nominal power used when operating. This is typically estimated as no detailed measurements exist.
  • Average load factor is the weighted average load factor in TYKO model.

Background data

Values used for computing unit emission factors are available in the background data table.