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City bus
Gross vehicle mass 18t, carrying capacity 6t, automatic transmission, number of seats 43
Urban driving, arterial roads
Emissions per vehicle kilometre Emissions per passenger kilometre
CO [g/km] CO [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 2.0 2.2 0.12 0.050
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.90 1.3 0.058 0.029
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.80 1.1 0.051 0.026
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.80 1.10 0.051 0.026
EEV 0.70 0.90 0.044 0.021
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.70 0.90 0.044 0.021
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.60 0.70 0.036 0.016
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.15 0.16 0.0086 0.0037
Average in 2016 0.62 0.78 0.038 0.018
HC [g/km] HC [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.46 0.60 0.029 0.014
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.25 0.30 0.015 0.0070
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.20 0.25 0.012 0.0058
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.20 0.25 0.012 0.0058
EEV 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.020 0.025 0.0012 0.00058
Average in 2016 0.075 0.09 0.0046 0.0021
NOx [g/km] NOx [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 11 14 0.69 0.32
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 6.9 8.4 0.42 0.20
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 7.2 8.1 0.42 0.19
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 5.2 6.5 0.32 0.152
EEV 2.2 2.7 0.13 0.063
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 3.7 3.9 0.21 0.091
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 2.4 2.9 0.15 0.068
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.17 0.22 0.011 0.0051
Average in 2016 3.3 3.9 0.20 0.090
PM [g/km] PM [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.36 0.49 0.023 0.011
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.22 0.30 0.014 0.0069
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.13 0.17 0.0081 0.0039
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.12 0.13 0.0070 0.0031
EEV 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.030 0.035 0.0018 0.00081
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.010 0.017 0.00072 0.00040
Average in 2016 0.054 0.064 0.0032 0.00148
CH4 [g/km] CH4 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.021 0.019 0.0011 0.00045
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.0093 0.0093 0.00051 0.00022
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.0068 0.0066 0.00037 0.00015
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.0063 0.0060 0.00034 0.00014
EEV 0.0008 0.0009 0.000045 0.000021
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.00076 0.00090 0.000045 0.000021
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.0011 0.0012 0.000066 0.000029
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.00055 0.00059 0.000031 0.000014
Average in 2016 0.0025 0.0025 0.00014 0.000057
N2O [g/km] N2O [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.015 0.015 0.00083 0.00035
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.015 0.015 0.00083 0.00035
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.015 0.015 0.00083 0.00035
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.0090 0.0090 0.00050 0.00021
EEV 0.023 0.023 0.0013 0.00053
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.023 0.023 0.0013 0.00053
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.049 0.049 0.0027 0.0011
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.045 0.045 0.0025 0.0010
Average in 2016 0.033 0.033 0.0018 0.00077
SO2 [g/km] SO2 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.0023 0.0028 0.00014 0.000065
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.0020 0.0025 0.00012 0.000058
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.0020 0.0025 0.00012 0.000057
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.0020 0.0025 0.00012 0.000057
EEV 0.0020 0.0025 0.00012 0.000057
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.0020 0.0025 0.00012 0.000057
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.0020 0.0024 0.00012 0.000056
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.0020 0.0024 0.00012 0.000056
Average in 2016 0.0020 0.0024 0.00012 0.000057
CO2 [g/km] CO2 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 686 835 42 19
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 595 744 37 17
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 595 737 36 17
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 595 737 36 17
EEV 595 737 36 17
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 595 737 36 17
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 585 721 36 17
EURO VI (2014 --> 585 721 36 17
Average in 2016 590 729 36 17
CO2 e [g/km] CO2 e [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 691 840 42 20
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 600 748 37 17
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 600 742 37 17
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 598 740 37 17
EEV 602 744 37 17
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 602 744 37 17
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 600 736 36 17
EURO VI (2014 --> 598 735 36 17
Average in 2016 600 739 37 17
Fuel consumption [g/km] Fuel consumption [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 242 294 15 6.8
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 210 262 13 6.1
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 210 260 13 6.0
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 210 260 13 6.0
EEV 210 260 13 6.0
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 210 260 13 6.0
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 206 254 13 5.9
EURO VI (2014 --> 206 254 13 5.9
Average in 2016 208 257 13 6.0
Fuel consumption [l/100km] Fuel consumption [l/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 29.3 35.7 0.018 0.0083
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 25.4 31.8 0.016 0.0074
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 25.4 31.5 0.016 0.0073
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 25.4 31.5 0.016 0.0073
EEV 25.4 31.5 0.016 0.0073
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 25.4 31.5 0.016 0.0073
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 25.0 30.8 0.015 0.0072
EURO VI (2014 --> 25.0 30.8 0.015 0.0072
Average in 2016 25.2 31.2 0.015 0.0072
Energy [MJ/km] Energy [MJ/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 10 13 0.63 0.30
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 9 11 0.56 0.26
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 9 11 0.55 0.26
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 9 11 0.55 0.26
EEV 9 11 0.55 0.26
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 9 11 0.55 0.26
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 9 11 0.54 0.26
EURO VI (2014 --> 9 11 0.54 0.26
Average in 2016 9 11 0.55 0.26
Energy [kWh/km] Energy [kWh/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 2.9 3.5 0.19 0.082
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.073
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.073
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.073
EEV 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.073
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.073
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 2.5 3.1 0.16 0.071
EURO VI (2014 --> 2.5 3.1 0.16 0.071
Average in 2016 2.5 3.1 0.17 0.072
Emission standard Share of mileage [%]
--> 1992 0.1
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.9
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 7.7
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 17.9
EEV 2.0
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 17.9
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 41.4
EURO VI (2014 --> 12.0
Total in 2016 100
CO = Carbon monoxide, HC = Total Hydrocarbons (including Methane CH4), NOx = Nitrogen oxides, PM = Total Particulate matter, CH4 = Methane, N2O = Nitrous oxides, SO2 = Sulphur dioxide, CO2 = Carbon dioxide, CO2e = greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalents (CH4 factor 25 and N2O factor 298), MJ = Megajoule, kWh = Kilowatthour, tkm = tonne kilometre, pkm = passenger/person kilometre
CO2 emissions include the share fo biofuels being in 2016 in diesel (renewable diesel) 11.5% of the calorific value
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
LIPASTO unit emissions database
Last updated 6.7.2017