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City bus
Gross vehicle mass 18t, carrying capacity 6t, automatic transmission, number of seats 43
Urban driving, streets
Emissions per vehicle kilometre Emissions per passenger kilometre
CO [g/km] CO [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 5.2 5.4 0.29 0.126
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 2.4 2.6 0.14 0.061
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 2.0 2.6 0.12 0.061
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 1.8 2.5 0.12 0.057
EEV 0.95 1.1 0.056 0.026
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.95 1.1 0.056 0.026
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.80 1.0 0.049 0.023
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.29 0.30 0.016 0.0070
Average in 2016 1.1 1.3 0.065 0.031
HC [g/km] HC [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 1.6 1.8 0.092 0.042
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.90 0.95 0.051 0.022
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.60 0.62 0.034 0.0144
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.40 0.54 0.026 0.0126
EEV 0.030 0.050 0.0021 0.00116
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.050 0.060 0.0030 0.00140
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.050 0.060 0.0030 0.00140
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.030 0.040 0.0019 0.00093
Average in 2016 0.16 0.20 0.010 0.0046
NOx [g/km] NOx [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 15 19 0.94 0.44
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 9.5 12 0.58 0.27
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 9.2 10 0.54 0.24
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 8.0 9.5 0.48 0.22
EEV 2.2 3.2 0.15 0.074
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 5.5 6.8 0.34 0.16
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 4.2 4.9 0.25 0.11
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.60 0.80 0.038 0.019
Average in 2016 5.1 6.0 0.30 0.14
PM [g/km] PM [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.62 0.72 0.037 0.017
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.39 0.46 0.023 0.011
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.20 0.24 0.012 0.0055
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.17 0.21 0.010 0.0048
EEV 0.022 0.027 0.0013 0.00063
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.033 0.039 0.0020 0.00090
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.033 0.039 0.0020 0.00090
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.0030 0.0040 0.00019 0.000093
Average in 2016 0.070 0.08 0.0042 0.0020
CH4 [g/km] CH4 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.056 0.052 0.0030 0.00120
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.022 0.021 0.0012 0.00048
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.015 0.014 0.00081 0.00033
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.014 0.013 0.00075 0.00030
EEV 0.0012 0.0013 0.000068 0.000030
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.0012 0.0013 0.000068 0.000030
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.0022 0.0022 0.00012 0.000052
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.0011 0.0011 0.000060 0.000025
Average in 2016 0.0052 0.0050 0.00028 0.00012
N2O [g/km] N2O [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.012 0.012 0.00067 0.00028
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.012 0.012 0.00067 0.00028
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.007 0.007 0.00041 0.00017
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.005 0.005 0.00028 0.00012
EEV 0.017 0.017 0.00094 0.00040
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.017 0.017 0.00094 0.00040
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.054 0.054 0.0030 0.00126
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.041 0.041 0.0023 0.00096
Average in 2016 0.032 0.032 0.0018 0.00075
SO2 [g/km] SO2 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 0.0033 0.0042 0.00021 0.000099
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.0031 0.0040 0.00020 0.000094
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 0.0031 0.0040 0.00020 0.000094
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 0.0031 0.0040 0.00020 0.000094
EEV 0.0025 0.0040 0.00018 0.000094
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 0.0025 0.0040 0.00018 0.000094
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 0.0025 0.0040 0.00018 0.000094
EURO VI (2014 --> 0.0025 0.0040 0.00018 0.000094
Average in 2016 0.0027 0.0040 0.00018 0.000094
CO2 [g/km] CO2 [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 988 1266 61 29
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 937 1201 58 28
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 937 1201 58 28
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 937 1202 58 28
EEV 758 1202 52 28
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 758 1202 52 28
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 758 1202 52 28
EURO VI (2014 --> 758 1201 52 28
Average in 2016 806 1202 54 28
CO2 e [g/km] CO2 e [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 993 1271 62 30
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 941 1205 58 28
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 940 1204 58 28
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 939 1204 58 28
EEV 763 1207 53 28
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 763 1207 53 28
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 774 1218 53 28
EURO VI (2014 --> 770 1213 53 28
Average in 2016 816 1212 55 28
Fuel consumption [g/km] Fuel consumption [g/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 348 446 22 10
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 330 423 20 9.8
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 330 423 20 9.8
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 330 423 21 9.8
EEV 267 423 18 9.8
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 267 423 18 9.8
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 267 423 18 9.8
EURO VI (2014 --> 267 423 18 9.8
Average in 2016 284 423 19 9.8
Fuel consumption [l/100km] Fuel consumption [l/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 42.2 54.1 0.026 0.013
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 40.0 51.3 0.025 0.012
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 40.0 51.3 0.025 0.012
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 40.0 51.4 0.025 0.012
EEV 32.4 51.4 0.022 0.012
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 32.4 51.4 0.022 0.012
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 32.4 51.4 0.022 0.012
EURO VI (2014 --> 32.4 51.3 0.022 0.012
Average in 2016 34.4 51.4 0.023 0.012
Energy [MJ/km] Energy [MJ/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 15 19 0.93 0.45
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 14 18 0.89 0.43
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 14 18 0.89 0.43
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 14 18 0.89 0.43
EEV 12 18 0.80 0.43
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 12 18 0.80 0.43
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 12 18 0.80 0.43
EURO VI (2014 --> 12 18 0.80 0.43
Average in 2016 12 18 0.82 0.43
Energy [kWh/km] Energy [kWh/pkm]
Emission standard Empty fully loaded (43 pass.) 18 passengers fully loaded (43 pass.)
--> 1992 4.2 5.4 0.26 0.12
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 4.0 5.1 0.25 0.12
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 4.0 5.1 0.25 0.12
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 4.0 5.1 0.25 0.12
EEV 3.2 5.1 0.22 0.12
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 3.2 5.1 0.22 0.12
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 3.2 5.1 0.22 0.12
EURO VI (2014 --> 3.2 5.1 0.22 0.12
Average in 2016 3.4 5.1 0.23 0.12
Emission standard Share of mileage [%]
--> 1992 0.1
EURO I (1993 - 1996) 0.9
EURO II (1997 - 1998) 7.7
EURO III (1999 - 2003) 17.9
EEV 2.0
EURO IV (2004 - 2007) 17.9
EURO V (2008 - 2013 ) 41.4
EURO VI (2014 --> 12.0
Total in 2016 100
CO = Carbon monoxide, HC = Total Hydrocarbons (including Methane CH4), NOx = Nitrogen oxides, PM = Total Particulate matter, CH4 = Methane, N2O = Nitrous oxides, SO2 = Sulphur dioxide, CO2 = Carbon dioxide, CO2e = greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalents (CH4 factor 25 and N2O factor 298), MJ = Megajoule, kWh = Kilowatthour, tkm = tonne kilometre, pkm = passenger/person kilometre
CO2 emissions include the share fo biofuels being in 2016 in diesel (renewable diesel) 11.5% of the calorific value
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
LIPASTO unit emissions database
Last updated 6.7.2017