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Cars on average in Finland in 2016
Share of diesel car mileage 41% Share of urban mileage 27%
Highway driving Urban driving, streets Average (highway + urban)
Car occupancy 1.9 persons Car occupancy 1.3 persons Car occupancy 1.7 persons
CO
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 4.8 2.5 12 9.0 6.6 3.9
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.73 0.39 1.1 0.85 0.83 0.49
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.54 0.29 0.51 0.39 0.53 0.31
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.47 0.25 0.40 0.31 0.45 0.27
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.27 0.14 0.22 0.17 0.25 0.15
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.24 0.13 0.19 0.14 0.22 0.13
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.24 0.13 0.19 0.14 0.22 0.13
Average in 2016 0.43 0.23 0.48 0.37 0.44 0.26
HC
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 0.51 0.27 1.4 1.1 0.75 0.44
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.068 0.036 0.15 0.11 0.089 0.053
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.027 0.014 0.055 0.042 0.035 0.021
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.016 0.0086 0.021 0.016 0.018 0.010
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.0067 0.0035 0.010 0.0080 0.0077 0.0045
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.0053 0.0028 0.0093 0.0072 0.0064 0.0038
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.0053 0.0028 0.0093 0.0072 0.0064 0.0038
Average in 2016 0.020 0.010 0.040 0.031 0.025 0.015
NOx
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 1.5 0.77 1.4 1.1 1.5 0.86
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.44 0.23 0.59 0.45 0.48 0.28
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.31 0.16 0.52 0.40 0.37 0.22
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.26 0.13 0.45 0.35 0.31 0.18
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.21 0.11 0.36 0.28 0.25 0.15
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.29 0.15 0.45 0.35 0.34 0.20
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.172 0.090 0.27 0.20 0.20 0.12
Average in 2016 0.28 0.15 0.44 0.34 0.33 0.19
PM
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 0.058 0.030 0.15 0.12 0.083 0.049
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.044 0.023 0.079 0.061 0.053 0.031
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.032 0.017 0.056 0.043 0.038 0.023
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.014 0.0074 0.023 0.017 0.016 0.0096
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.014 0.0076 0.024 0.018 0.017 0.0099
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.0014 0.00072 0.0023 0.0018 0.0016 0.00095
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.0014 0.00072 0.0023 0.0018 0.0016 0.00095
Average in 2016 0.0094 0.0049 0.015 0.012 0.011 0.0065
CH4
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 0.017 0.0089 0.045 0.035 0.025 0.014
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.0047 0.0025 0.010 0.0076 0.0061 0.0036
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.0018 0.0009 0.0032 0.0025 0.0022 0.0013
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.0010 0.00051 0.0011 0.00084 0.0010 0.00059
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.00035 0.00019 0.00048 0.00037 0.00039 0.00023
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.00034 0.00018 0.00048 0.00037 0.00037 0.00022
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.00034 0.00018 0.00048 0.00037 0.00037 0.00022
Average in 2016 0.0011 0.00058 0.0020 0.0015 0.0013 0.00079
N2O
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 0.0038 0.0020 0.0059 0.0045 0.0044 0.0026
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.0042 0.0022 0.014 0.011 0.0068 0.0040
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.0038 0.0020 0.0082 0.0063 0.0050 0.0029
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.0018 0.00092 0.0044 0.0034 0.0025 0.0015
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 0.0017 0.00092 0.0048 0.0037 0.0026 0.0015
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 0.0017 0.00092 0.0048 0.0037 0.0026 0.0015
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 0.0017 0.00092 0.0048 0.0037 0.0026 0.0015
Average in 2016 0.0021 0.0011 0.0059 0.0046 0.0031 0.0018
SO2
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 0.00063 0.00033 0.00095 0.00073 0.00072 0.00042
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.00063 0.00033 0.00095 0.00073 0.00072 0.00042
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.00062 0.00033 0.00095 0.00073 0.00071 0.00042
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.00063 0.00033 0.00096 0.00074 0.00072 0.00042
2006 0.00063 0.00033 0.00096 0.00074 0.00072 0.00042
2007 0.00062 0.00033 0.00095 0.00073 0.00071 0.00042
2008 0.00060 0.00032 0.00090 0.00069 0.00068 0.00040
2009 0.00059 0.00031 0.00086 0.00067 0.00067 0.00039
2010 0.00057 0.00030 0.00084 0.00065 0.00064 0.00038
2011 0.00056 0.00029 0.00082 0.00063 0.00063 0.00037
2012 0.00054 0.00028 0.00079 0.00061 0.00060 0.00036
2013 0.00052 0.00028 0.00078 0.00060 0.00059 0.00035
2014 0.00051 0.00027 0.00076 0.00059 0.00058 0.00034
2015 0.00050 0.00026 0.00075 0.00058 0.00057 0.00033
2016 0.00049 0.00026 0.00074 0.00057 0.00056 0.00033
2017
2018            
2019
2020            
Average in 2016 0.00059 0.00031 0.00089 0.00069 0.00067 0.00039
CO2
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 141 74 212 163 160 94
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 141 74 214 164 160 94
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 138 73 214 164 158 93
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 140 74 216 166 161 95
2006 143 75 218 168 163 96
2007 141 74 217 167 162 95
2008 136 72 203 156 154 91
2009 135 71 197 152 151 89
2010 128 67 191 147 145 85
2011 125 66 187 144 142 83
2012 121 64 180 139 137 80
2013 117 62 178 137 134 79
2014 114 60 174 134 130 77
2015 113 59 171 132 128 75
2016 110 58 168 129 125 74
2017
2018            
2019
2020            
Average in 2016 132 69 202 155 151 89
CO2e
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 142 75 215 166 162 95
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 142 75 218 168 162 96
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 139 73 216 166 160 94
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 141 74 217 167 161 95
2006 143 75 220 169 164 96
2007 142 75 218 168 163 96
2008 137 72 205 157 155 91
2009 135 71 198 153 152 90
2010 129 68 193 148 146 86
2011 126 66 188 145 143 84
2012 121 64 182 140 138 81
2013 118 62 179 138 134 79
2014 115 60 175 135 131 77
2015 113 60 172 133 129 76
2016 110 58 170 130 126 74
2017
2018            
2019
2020            
Average in 2016 133 70 203 157 152 89
Fuel consumption
Emission standard [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm] [g/km] [g/pkm]
--> 1992 49 26 73 57 55 33
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 49 26 74 57 55 33
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 48 25 74 57 55 32
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 49 26 75 57 56 33
2006 49 26 76 58 56 33
2007 49 26 75 58 56 33
2008 47 25 70 54 53 31
2009 47 25 68 52 52 31
2010 44 23 66 51 50 30
2011 43 23 65 50 49 29
2012 42 22 62 48 47 28
2013 41 21 62 47 46 27
2014 40 21 60 46 45 27
2015 39 21 59 46 44 26
2016 38 20 58 45 43 26
2017 0 0 0 0 0 0
2018 0 0 0 0 0 0
2019 0 0 0 0 0 0
2020 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average in 2016 46 24 70 54 52 31
Fuel consumption
Emission standard [l/100km] [l/pkm] [l/100km] [l/pkm] [l/100km] [l/pkm]
--> 1992 6.3 3.3 9.5 7.3 7.2 4.2
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 6.3 3.3 9.5 7.3 7.2 4.2
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 6.2 3.2 9.5 7.3 7.1 4.2
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 6.3 3.3 9.6 7.4 7.2 4.2
2006 6.4 3.3 9.7 7.5 7.3 4.3
2007 6.3 3.3 9.7 7.4 7.2 4.2
2008 6.1 3.2 9.1 7.0 6.9 4.0
2009 6.0 3.2 8.8 6.7 6.7 4.0
2010 5.7 3.0 8.5 6.5 6.5 3.8
2011 5.6 2.9 8.3 6.4 6.3 3.7
2012 5.4 2.8 8.0 6.2 6.1 3.6
2013 5.2 2.8 7.9 6.1 6.0 3.5
2014 5.1 2.7 7.7 6.0 5.8 3.4
2015 5.0 2.6 7.6 5.9 5.7 3.4
2016 4.9 2.6 7.5 5.8 5.6 3.3
2017 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2018 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2019 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2020 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Average in 2016 5.9 3.1 9.0 6.9 6.7 4.0
Energy
Emission standard [MJ/km] [MJ/pkm] [MJ/km] [MJ/pkm] [MJ/km] [MJ/pkm]
--> 1992 2.1 1.1 3.1 2.4 2.4 1.4
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 2.1 1.1 3.1 2.4 2.4 1.4
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 2.0 1.1 3.1 2.4 2.3 1.4
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 2.1 1.1 3.2 2.4 2.4 1.4
2006 2.1 1.1 3.2 2.5 2.4 1.4
2007 2.1 1.1 3.2 2.5 2.4 1.4
2008 2.0 1.1 3.0 2.3 2.3 1.3
2009 2.0 1.0 2.9 2.2 2.2 1.3
2010 1.9 1.0 2.8 2.2 2.1 1.3
2011 1.8 1.0 2.8 2.1 2.1 1.2
2012 1.8 0.94 2.7 2.0 2.0 1.2
2013 1.7 0.91 2.6 2.0 2.0 1.2
2014 1.7 0.88 2.6 2.0 1.9 1.1
2015 1.7 0.87 2.5 1.9 1.9 1.1
2016 1.6 0.85 2.5 1.9 1.8 1.1
2017
2018            
2019
2020            
Average in 2016 1.9 1.0 3.0 2.3 2.2 1.3
Energy
Emission standard [kWh/km] [kWh/pkm] [kWh/km] [kWh/pkm] [kWh/km] [kWh/pkm]
--> 1992 0.57 0.30 0.87 0.67 0.65 0.38
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 0.57 0.30 0.87 0.67 0.65 0.38
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0.56 0.30 0.87 0.67 0.65 0.38
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 0.57 0.30 0.88 0.68 0.66 0.39
2006 0.58 0.31 0.89 0.69 0.67 0.39
2007 0.58 0.30 0.89 0.68 0.66 0.39
2008 0.56 0.29 0.83 0.64 0.63 0.37
2009 0.55 0.29 0.81 0.62 0.62 0.36
2010 0.52 0.28 0.78 0.60 0.59 0.35
2011 0.51 0.27 0.76 0.59 0.58 0.34
2012 0.49 0.26 0.74 0.57 0.56 0.33
2013 0.48 0.25 0.73 0.56 0.55 0.32
2014 0.47 0.25 0.71 0.55 0.53 0.31
2015 0.46 0.24 0.70 0.54 0.52 0.31
2016 0.45 0.24 0.69 0.53 0.51 0.30
2017
2018            
2019
2020            
Average in 2016 0.54 0.28 0.82 0.63 0.62 0.36
Emission standard Share of mileage [%]
--> 1992 1.2
EURO 1 (1993 - 1996) 3.2
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 9.5
EURO 3 (2001 - 2005) 22.2
EURO 4 (2006 - 2009) 23.9
EURO 5 (2010 - 2014) 30.5
EURO 6 (2015 -->) 9.6
Total in 2016 100
CO = Carbon monoxide, HC = Total Hydrocarbons (including Methane CH4), NOx = Nitrogen oxides, PM = Total Particulate matter, CH4 = Methane, N2O = Nitrous oxides, SO2 = Sulphur dioxide, CO2 = Carbon dioxide, CO2e = greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalents (CH4 factor 25 and N2O factor 298), MJ = Megajoule, kWh = Kilowatthour, tkm = tonne kilometre, pkm = passenger/person kilometre
CO2 emissions include the share of biofuels being in 2016 in gasoline (ethanol etc.) 4.8% and in diesel (renewable diesel) 11.5% of the calorific value
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
LIPASTO unit emissions database
Last updated 6.7.2017