Source: LIPASTO -calculation system, VTT
LIPASTO main page
Passenger air traffic
Average passenger aircraft emissions and energy consumption per passenger kilometre in Finland 2008
      Unit emissions of passenger air traffic [g/pkm]
      CO HC NOX CH4* N2O* SO2 CO2 CO2eq.** Fuel consumption [g/pkm] Fuel consumption [l/pkm] Energy consumption [MJ/pkm]
DOMESTIC, SHORT-DISTANCE 463 km                      
  weighted average 0.49 0.030 1.1 0.0018 0.0070 0.083 257 259 82 0.10 3.5
  jet engine scheduled 0.84 0.069 1.5 0.0024 0.0097 0.12 354 357 113 0.14 4.8
  turboprop engine scheduled 0.24 0.0021 0.77 0.0013 0.0051 0.059 188 190 59 0.074 2.6
DOMESTIC, LONG-DISTANCE > 463 km      
  weighted average 0.54 0.038 0.67 0.0012 0.0048 0.056 177 178 56 0.070 2.4
  jet engine scheduled 0.60 0.043 0.71 0.0013 0.0050 0.058 184 185 58 0.073 2.5
  turboprop engine scheduled 0.14 0.0013 0.45 0.00087 0.0035 0.040 128 129 40 0.051 1.7
                           
EUROPE, SHORT-DISTANCE 463 km      
  weighted average 0.76 0.059 1.1 0.0018 0.0070 0.084 257 260 82 0.10 3.5
  jet engine scheduled 0.88 0.075 1.1 0.0018 0.0073 0.089 269 271 85 0.11 3.7
  turboprop engine scheduled 0.36 0.0048 1.1 0.0015 0.0060 0.069 220 221 69 0.087 3.0
EUROPE, LONG-DISTANCE > 463 km                      
  weighted average 0.43 0.031 0.50 0.0010 0.0041 0.048 148 149 47 0.059 2.0
  jet engine scheduled 0.45 0.032 0.52 0.0011 0.0042 0.049 154 155 49 0.061 2.1
  jet engine charter 0.22 0.016 0.32 0.00057 0.0023 0.026 83 84 26 0.033 1.1
                           
LONG-HAUL FLIGHTS      
  weighted average 0.095 0.0070 0.45 0.00078 0.0031 0.036 113 114 36 0.045 1.6
  jet engine scheduled 0.094 0.0069 0.53 0.00092 0.0037 0.043 134 135 43 0.054 1.8
  jet engine charter 0.097 0.0073 0.29 0.00046 0.0019 0.022 67 68 22 0.027 0.93
All distances used in the calculations are defined as great circle distances (GCD).
g/pkm = grams per (paid) passenger kilometre
CO = carbon monoxide, HC = hydrocarbons (including methane CH4), NOX = nitrogen oxides, CH4 = methane, N2O = nitrous oxide, SO2 = sulphur dioxide, 
CO2 = carbon dioxide, CO2eq. = carbon dioxide equivalent, MJ = megajoule
Properties of aviation fuel, used in calculating fuel consumption [l/hkm] and energy consumption [MJ/hkm], [kWh/hkm],
and to complete missing data concerning CO2 and SO2 emissions:
Density: 800 kg/m3 CO2 factor: 3.169 kg/(kg fuel)
Heating value: 43 MJ/kg SO2 factor: 0.001 kg/(kg fuel)
*Emission factors to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions:
CH4: 0.0005 g/MJ N2O: 0.002 g/MJ
**GWP100 (global warming potential) factors for calculating CO2 equivalents:
CO2 ~ 1, CH4 ~ 21, N2O ~ 310
[*] 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 2, Energy, 3.6.1.2 Choice of Emission Factors, 2006.
http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html
[**] IPCC Second Assessment Report: Climate change 1995, 1995.
7.5.2009
Last updated  
By Heidi Auvinen, VTT
Email: etunimi.sukunimi@vtt.fi